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CDFA Inspection Services Division


Cauliflower Fertilization Guidelines

Funding provided by:
FREP
 
 
 

Nitrogen
(N)

 

Cauliflower Nitrogen Nutrition

Deficiency Symptoms

Nitrogen deficient plants are stunted and have pale green leaves. Older leaves have bright orange, red and purple tints and defoliate early. Symptoms first appear in older leaves because N is mobile in plants and is translocated from older to younger leaves when its supply is insufficient [N30 N31].

Phosphorus
(P2O5)

 

Cauliflower Phosphorus Nutrition

Deficiency Symptoms

Growth of P deficient plants is reduced. Older leaves and stems may turn purple. In contrast to N deficiency, the plants are generally not pale green [P14, P15].

Potassium
(K2O)

 

Cauliflower Potassium Nutrition

Deficiency Symptoms

Leaves of K deficient plants are bluish green with yellowish areas between the veins and scorched edges. Spots of dry tissue (necrosis) on the leaf blade between the veins may also be present. With K being mobile in plants, older leaves are first affected. The leaves may arch backwards lengthwise while the scorched edges generally curl upwards [K14, K15].

Soil Test

Soil Nitrate Test

Sampling Procedure

Soil samples are taken from the top foot of the soil profile, which is the major rooting zone [N9]. By the second half of the growth cycle, cauliflower roots can reach to 3-4 feet in the absence of restrictive layers; however, most roots are located in the top foot of the profile [N20, N25].

Zones of recently banded fertilizer applications should be avoided so that N availability is not over-estimated [N8]. For more information on sampling procedure see Sampling for Soil Nitrate Determination.

Soil Nitrate Quick Test

Soil samples can be sent to a laboratory or extracted and analyzed on the farm. The soil nitrate quick test with colorimetric test strips is highly correlated with the standard laboratory technique and is a reliable estimate of current soil N status. Although the quick test is less accurate than a standard laboratory analysis, its accuracy is generally sufficient for routine on-farm use when done correctly. With the quick test, soil nitrate can be determined in a timely manner in order to make N fertilization decisions [N7, N11, N12].

For the soil nitrate quick test, 30 mL of a of a calcium chloride (0.01 M) or an aluminum sulfate (0.025 M) solution are measured into a clean 2-oz bottle or centrifuge tube with a mark at 40 mL. Field moist soil is added until the extractant reaches the mark. The tube is then capped and vigorously shaken for about 1 minute to disperse all soil aggregates. The soil particles are allowed to settle until clear supernatant forms. The nitrate concentration in the supernatant can then be measured with nitrate-sensitive colorimetric test papers [N11, N12]. More detailed instructions can be found here.

Interpretation of Test Results

Several studies carried out in commercial cauliflower fields and other cool-season vegetables on the Central Coast found that no fertilizer N is necessary as long as the soil nitrate-N level is above 20 ppm (= 20 mg/kg) [N7, N10]. A concentration of 20 ppm nitrate-N in the top foot of soil equals approximately 80 lb N/acre. In the absence of leaching, this amount of N could supply a crop for at least ten days to two weeks, even at peak N demand [N9]. If the nitrate-N concentration in the soil is below 20 ppm, only enough N to increase the nitrate-N level to 20 ppm is needed (see In-Season N). Contact your local farm advisor for more information.

Leaf analysis

Leaf Analysis

Sampling Procedure

Recently matured leaves, typically 3-4 nodes down from the growing point, are used for tissue analyses. A minimum of 20 leaves should be collected, each from a different healthy plant of representative vigor. Samples are taken from the entire field. Variable fields should be divided into uniform blocks, which are sampled separately [N9. It is important to accurately determine the crop growth stage, since the total N concentration declines as crops develop.

Once tissue samples are collected, they should be dried as quickly as possible [N9]. For more information on sampling procedure see Plant Tissue Sampling.

For petiole sap nitrate-N analysis, the entire petiole or midrib is used when plants are young. In more mature plants with large petioles and midribs, the center section can be used [N9].

Interpretation of Test Results

Plant tissue can be analyzed for total nitrogen or nitrate-N concentration. The total N concentration (see Table) of whole leaves indicates the longer-term N availability, while the petiole nitrate-N concentration reflects more the current conditions [N9]. Total N concentration is considered a better measure to monitor crop N status; however, this technique has not been widely used in the California vegetable industry [N9]. Petiole nitrate-N levels have been found to be relatively insensitive indicators of the current soil N availability, especially when excess N is available [N6, N8, N9, N12, N22]. Fertilizer N decisions should therefore not be based solely on leaf or petiole analyses [N22]. Contact your local farm advisor for more information.

Approximate minimum tissue sufficiency level for cauliflower [N9].
Leaf N
                      concentration

Under desert conditions in Arizona, critical nitrate-N concentrations in the midribs were 11,000 ppm at the 4-6-leaf stage, 9,000 ppm at the 10-12-leaf stage, 7,000 ppm at folding, 6,000 ppm at early heading, 2,500 ppm when heads reached full size, and 1,500 ppm pre-harvest [N5].

Preplant / Starter N

Preplant / Starter N

Cauliflower requires little N in the early phase of growth [N16, N21]. To prevent N stress during early growth, small quantities of N (20-30 lbs/acre) are generally applied pre-plant or at planting [N17].

Banding the fertilizer is generally more effective than a broadcast application [N4, N14]. Bands should be located 2-3 inches to the side of the seeds or plants and 3-4 inches deep [N13].

Pre-plant N applied in fall is not recommended as the nitrate is highly susceptible to leaching below the root zone by winter rain [N24]. To ensure that N is available in the root zone of young plants, the irrigation management needs to be optimized to prevent nitrate movement below the root zone.

In-Season N

In-Season N

Even though splitting N applications has not always been found to be superior to applying all N at planting [N4], split applications should be preferred because, high pre-plant or starter application rates considerably increase the risk of nitrate leaching below the root zone.

In a study on the Central Coast, Welch and coworkers [N32] found that a single ammonium sulfate application at planting as was less effective than split applications. Addition of nitrapyrin, a nitrification inhibitor, was equally effective as split applications. Split applications also increased N uptake and yield in a Danish study [N29].

Application Rate

The required N rate depends on soil nitrate content. Several studies carried out in commercial fields of cauliflower and other cool-season vegetables on the Central Coast found that when the pre-sidedress soil nitrate-N level is above 20 ppm, no fertilizer N is necessary [N7, N10]. If the nitrate-N concentration in the soil is below 20 ppm, only enough N to increase soil available nitrate-N to 20 ppm is needed. Approximately 4 lbs N/acre need to be added to increase the soil nitrate level by 1 ppm [N12]. As an example, when the soil nitrate-N concentration is 15 ppm, 20 lbs N/acre are needed to increase the level to 20 ppm. Contact your local farm advisor for more information.

Crops produced from late fall through early spring generally require more fertilizer N because the residual soil N content tends to be lower during this period compared to the summer months [N9]. When leaching losses are minimized, the seasonal N application rates for cauliflower should not exceed 180-240 lbs/acre for winter and spring production and 150-180 lbs/acre for summer and fall production [N9].

These application rates are in line with studies from Europe, where optimum yields were produced with a total N availability ranging from 200 to 240 lbs N. The available N included fertilizer N plus pre-plant nitrate-N in the top two feet of the soil profile [N4, N19, N29].

Studies carried out in Arizona found that marketable yields ranging from 200 to 260 cwt/acre were achieved with 300-360 lbs N/acre [N23, N26, N27]. However, in one of the studies with cauliflower produced with subsurface drip, the residual soil nitrate N in the top three feet of the profile after the harvest of the cauliflower generally was between 135 and 180 lbs/acre. This amount does not include N leached during the cropping season and N in residues remaining in the field [N26, N27].

CropManage

In addition to residual soil nitrate, nitrate in the irrigation water should be accounted for to reduce the amount of N fertilizer applied. Nitrogen mineralization from soil organic matter and crop residues also add available soil N. Net N mineralization is generally higher after broccoli or cauliflower than after lettuce [N9] (see Factors Affecting Soil Nitrate Concentrations in Spring). These factors are taken into account by CropManage, a web-based irrigation and N management software tool developed by Cahn and coworkers[N2]. CropManage can be accessed here.

Mode of Application


Subsurface band

Everaarts and de Moel [N4] reported that placement of fertilizer in a band 2 inches to the side of the row and 2 inches below the soil surface tended to slightly increase cauliflower yield compared to a broadcast application. However, in Oregon, Hemphill and Hart [N14] found that band applied in-season N resulted in significantly lower yield and mean head size than when the N was broadcast.


Fertigation

In drip-irrigated fields, N can be applied through the drip system [N17].


Surface band

A surface band application of an ammonium nitrate solution between rosette stage and harvest serves as contact herbicide against broadleaf weeds and as a N source [N28]. The waxy cuticle that cauliflower and other cole crops develop once they have at least three true leaves prevents damage to the crop, unless the plants are very wet [N28]. A shielded spray should be used to avoid spraying the growing point or emerging new leaves of the broccoli plant [N28].

Agamalian [N1] found that topical applications of 50 to 60 gallons per acre of undiluted 20% ammonium nitrate were effective in killing weeds. Ammonium thiosulfate was also effective in killing weeds, while the results with urea/sulfuric acid solutions were variable [N1]. The amount of N in these applications is equivalent to 105-125 lbs N/acre. Therefore, such high topical applications should only be used when the amount of N applied is needed by the plants at the time of application. The N applied must be integrated into the N fertilization program .


Foliar N

Little information on the effect of foliar N application is available.

Time of Application

While N uptake is minimal during early growth, the N uptake rate is high during the second half of the season, and may exceed 10 lbs/acre per day and N uptake rates generally remain high until harvest [N16, N21].

Early in the season, N uptake is low and the plant’s demand is covered by residual soil N and starter N or pre-plant N. Once the plants reach the 4-6 leaves stage, N uptake increases quickly, and sufficient N needs to be available [N3]. N is only applied when the pre-sidedress soil nitrate-N concentration is below 20 ppm (see above).

Fertilizer Type

Under greenhouse conditions the type of mineral N applied (nitrate, ammonium or urea) has been found to have little effect on cauliflower N uptake [N18]. Furthermore, once applied urea is generally hydrolyzed quickly to ammonium and ammonium is generally quickly converted to nitrate by soil microorganisms, making nitrate the major form of N available to plants, except when soil temperatures are low.

N in Cauliflower Residues

A considerable quantity of N is left in the field with leaves and stems. In a study in high-yielding fields on the Central Coast, Smith and coworkers [N25] found the stems and leaves that are left in the field as residues contained 175-230 lbs N/acre, which corresponds to 60-80% of the total N in the aboveground biomass. The aboveground biomass is very N rich, having an N concentration of 4% or more, and is easily decomposed. This leads to high net soil N mineralization rates and soil N availability after cauliflower [N9]. A large proportion of the mineralized N will be available to the next crop, provided it is not leached below the root zone.

Soil Test

Soil Analysis

Sampling Procedure

Soil samples are taken from the top foot of the soil profile, which is the major rooting zone [P4]. By the second half of the growth cycle, cauliflower roots can reach to 3-4 feet in the absence of restrictive layers; however, most roots are located in the top foot of the profile [P10, P13].

Zones of recently banded fertilizer applications should be avoided so that P availability is not over-estimated [P3]. For more information on sampling procedure see see Soil Test Sampling.

Interpretation of Test Results

Bicarbonate extractable P levels (Olsen-P) above 50 ppm are adequate for cauliflower growth and P fertilization is generally not necessary (see Table) [P7]. Cauliflower grown in soils with less than 50 ppm plant available P may benefit from P fertilizer (see Pre-Plant P). Contact your local farm advisor for more information.

Soil test interpretation for cool season vegetables [P7, P12].
Soil P and K
                      Test

The values in the table are in line with results from an Australian study, where 95% of maximum yield were reached when soil test values exceeded 40 ppm Olsen-P [P8].

Leaf analysis

Leaf Analysis

Sampling Procedure

Recently matured leaves, typically 3-4 nodes down from the growing point, are used for tissue analyses. A minimum of 20 leaves should be collected, each from a different healthy plant of representative vigor. Samples are taken from the entire field. Variable fields should be divided into uniform blocks, which are sampled separately [P4]. It is important to accurately determine the crop growth stage, since the total nutrient concentration declines as crops develop.

Once tissue samples are collected, they should be dried as quickly as possible [P4]. For more information on sampling procedure see Plant Tissue Sampling.

Interpretation of Test Results

Tissue P analyses are more valuable as a planning tool for succeeding crops than as a management tool for the current crop because P is generally applied pre-plant.

Adequate whole-leaf P and K concentrations in the most recently matured leaves [P6].
Leaf P and
                      K Analysis

At the buttoning stage, the Western Fertilizer Handbook recommends a slightly higher sufficiency range of 0.5-0.7% PO4-P [P1]. These values are in line with a study in Australia, where the maximum yield was reached with leaf P concentrations exceeding 0.47% at buttoning [P8].

The sufficiency range in the midrib of the most recently matured leaf ranges from 3,500 to 5000 ppm PO4-P. This range remains stable between the 6-8 leaf stage and pre-harvest [P1].

Preplant P

Preplant P

Application Rate

Phosphorus application rates should be based on soil test results. Bicarbonate extractable P levels above 50 ppm are adequate for cauliflower growth and a yield response is not likely. However, to promote early growth, a small starter application may be beneficial (see Starter P). When the soil P test level is below 50 ppm, P fertilization may increase yield. Applying the amount removed with the harvested curds ensures that P availability remains at the same level over the years. When P availability is very low, higher application rates may be required.

In a study carried out in different commercial fields on the Central Coast, total P uptake reached 35-45 lbs/acre [P13]. However, only about 40% of the P taken up is removed from the field with the harvested curds [P11]. Therefore, to replace the P removed from the field with one crop, 30-40 lbs P2O5/acre (14-18 lbs P/acre) are required.

For the southern desert and Central Valley, where soil P test levels are generally lower than on the Central Coast, application rates exceeding the P removed at harvest may be needed [P7]. In eastern Canada, in soils with low to medium P availability, the highest cauliflower yields (180 cwt/acre) were produced with 100 of 200 lbs P2O5/acre. However, yield differences due to application rate were small [P2]. Over the long term, such high rates are likely to increase soil test values. Regular soil and leaf analyses indicate whether the P fertilization program is adequate or should be modified to maintain optimal P availability. For more information, contact your local farm advisor.

Mode of Application

In general, band applications are more effective than broadcast applications. Bands should be located 2-3 inches to the side of the seeds or plants and 3-4 inches deep [P5]. However, in a study on soils low in available P, McPharlin and coworkers [P8] did not find a significant yield difference between broadcast and banded P applications.

Broadcast P fertilizer needs to be disked into the soil because P is immobile in the soil. Because the surface soil periodically dries out, the root density near the soil surface is low [P9].

Time of Application

Pre-plant P fertilizers are generally best applied close to the time of planting since P may interact with soil minerals and become less available over time [P9]. The further away soil pH is from neutral, the stronger P interacts with soil minerals.

Fertilizer Type

A number of granular and liquid P fertilizers are available. Fact sheets of the most common fertilizers can be found on the web site of the International Plant Nutrition Institute.

Starter P

Starter Phosphorus

Application Rate

A banded starter P application may promote root growth, especially when soil temperatures are low. Bands should be located 2-3 inches to the side of the seeds or plants and 3-4 inches deep [P5].

For Oregon, Hemphill [P5] recommended applying a dilute solution of 11-48-0 at about 35 lbs of product/acre (16.5 lbs P2O5/acre) applied with 625 gal/acre. Other monoammonium phosphate fertilizers may also be used.

Soil Test

Soil Analysis

Sampling Procedure

Soil samples are taken from the top foot of the soil profile, which is the major rooting zone [K4]. By the second half of the growth cycle, cauliflower roots can reach to 3-4 feet in the absence of restrictive layers; however, most roots are located in the top foot of the profile [K9, K13].

Zones of recently banded fertilizer applications should be avoided so that K availability is not over-estimated [K3]. For more information on sampling procedure see see Soil Test Sampling.

To determine plant available K, soil samples are most often extracted with an ammonium acetate solution [K8, K10].

Interpretation of Test Results

While a response to K fertilization is unlikely when soil test K levels exceed 150 ppm; cauliflower may respond to fertilization when the available K level is 100-150 ppm. A response is likely when the available K concentration is below 100 ppm [K12]. Contact your local farm advisor for more information.

Soil test interpretation for cool season vegetables [K8, K12].
Soil P and K
                      Test

In addition to the exchangeable K content, competition with other cations may affect K uptake by plants. In soils where K makes up less than 2% of exchangeable cations, K uptake may be restricted [K12].

Leaf analysis

Leaf Analysis

Sampling Procedure

Recently matured leaves, typically 3-4 nodes down from the growing point, are used for tissue analyses. A minimum of 20 leaves should be collected, each from a different healthy plant of representative vigor. Samples are taken from the entire field. Variable fields should be divided into uniform blocks, which are sampled separately [K4]. It is important to accurately determine the crop growth stage, since the total nutrient concentration declines as crops develop.

Once tissue samples are collected, they should be dried as quickly as possible [K4]. For more information on sampling procedure see Plant Tissue Sampling.

Interpretation of Test Results


Adequate whole-leaf P and K concentrations in the most recently matured leaves [K6].
Leaf P and
                      K Analysis

At the buttoning stage, the Western Fertilizer Handbook recommends a slightly higher sufficiency range of 2.6-4.2% K [K1].

The sufficiency range in the midrib of the most recently matured leaf ranges from 4.0 to 6.0% K. This range remains stable between the 6-8 leaf stage and preharvest [K1].

Soil Applied K

Soil Applied K / K Fertigation

Application Rate

Potassium is typically taken up in higher quantities than any other nutrient which emphasizes the need for careful attention to supplying this nutrient to cauliflower.

The K application rate should be based on soil test results. Cauliflower grown in soils with greater than 150 ppm of ammonium acetate exchangeable K is unlikely to respond to K fertilization and K fertilization is generally not beneficial. When the soil K test level is below 150 ppm, the K removed with the harvested crop should be replaced [K8]. In a study carried out in different commercial fields on the Central Coast, total K uptake was 240-300 lbs/acre [K13]. However, only about 30% of the K taken up is removed from the field with the harvested curds [K11]. Therefore, to replace the K removed from the field with one crop, 70-90 lbs K2O/acre (85-110 lbs K/acre) are required.

In fields with very low soil test values, the application rate may be increased, especially when leaf analyses indicate that K supply is insufficient. A higher application rate may also be necessary in very sandy soils where K leaching may increase the amount of K exported from the field. However, in eastern Canada, cauliflower grown in soils with low ammonium acetate extractable K levels ranging from 52 to 81 ppm, K fertilization had little effect on yield [K2]. In this trial, the highest yields, averaging 190 cwt/acre, were produced with 100 lbs K2O/acre.

Time and Mode of Application

In fields with sprinkler or furrow irrigation, K fertilizers are most commonly applied pre-plant. Pre-plant applications can be broadcast and incorporated into the soil or banded. Due to salt effects, the total of N plus K2O in the band should not exceed 90 lbs/acre [K5]. If more K is needed, the remainder should be broadcast and incorporated into the seedbed prior to planting [K5].

In drip irrigated fields, K can also be applied by fertigation during the growing season. Cauliflower takes up most of the K during the second half of its growth cycle [K11], which is the time when the K supply needs to be adequate.

Fertilizer Type

Potassium chloride (KCl), also known as muriate of potash, and potassium sulfate (sulfate of potash; K2SO4) are the most commonly used fertilizers. Fact sheets of the most common fertilizers can be found on the web site of the International Plant Nutrition Institute.

For fertigation, KCl is generally preferred over K2SO4 due to its higher solubility [K7].

Acknowledgments

Guidelines and Webpage Design:

  • Daniel Geisseler, Ph.D.; Cooperative Extension Specialist in nutrient management; Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis

Reviewers:

  • Richard Smith; Farm Advisor; University of California Cooperative Extension Monterey County
  • William R. Horwath, Ph.D.; Professor of Soil Biogeochemistry and James G. Boswell Endowed Chair in Soil Science; Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis

Support:

  • Amadou Ba, Ph.D.; Branch Chief Feed, Fertilizer, and Livestock Drugs Regulatory Services, California Department of Food and Agriculture
  • Amrith Gunasekara, Ph.D.; Science Advisor to the Secretary; California Department of Food and Agriculture

Last Update: January, 2015

Additional Information:

  1. Cauliflower Nitrogen Uptake and Partitioning
  2. Cauliflower Production in California
    (Historic Background, Production Statistics)
  3. FREP Database
TOP OF PAGE

References:


Nitrogen

  1. Agamalian, H.S., 1988. Weed control in crucifer crops with nitrogen fertilizers. California Agriculture 42(6), 16-17.
  2. Cahn, M., Hartz, T., 2012. Irrigation and nitrogen management web-based software for lettuce production. FREP Conference Proceedings 2012, 18-22.
  3. Doerge, T.A., Roth, R.L., Gardner, B.R., 1991. Nitrogen fertilizer management in Arizona. College of Agriculture, the University of Arizona.
  4. Everaarts, A.P., de Moel, C.P., 1995. The effect of nitrogen and the method of application on the yield of cauliflower. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science 43, 409-418.
  5. Gardner, B.R., Roth, R.L., 1990. Midrib nitrate concentration as a means for determining nitrogen needs of cauliflower. Journal of Plant Nutrition 13, 1443-1451.
  6. Hartz, T., 1996. Nitrogen management through intensive on-farm monitoring. FREP Final Report.
  7. Hartz, T., 1998. Evaluation of pre-sidedress soil nitrate testing to determine N requirements of cool season vegetables. FREP Final Report.
  8. Hartz, T.K., 2006. Vegetable production best management practices to minimize nutrient loss. HortTechnology 16, 398-403.
  9. Hartz, T.K., 2007. Efficient nitrogen management for cool-season vegetables.
  10. Hartz, T., Smith, R., 2012. In-season soil nitrate testing explained. UCCE Monterey County Crop Notes July/August 2012, 6-7.
  11. Hartz, T.K., Smith, R.F., Schulbach, K.F., LeStrange, M., 1994. On-farm nitrogen tests improve fertilizer efficiency, protect groundwater. California Agriculture 48(4), 29-32.
  12. Hartz, T.K., Bendixen, W.E., Wierdsma, L., 2000. The value of presidedress soil nitrate testing as a nitrogen management tool in irrigated vegetable production. HortScience 35, 651–656.
  13. Hemphill, D., 2010. Oregon vegetables – Cauliflower.
  14. Hemphill, D., Hart, J., 1992. Effect of rate, timing of application, and placement of nitrogen fertilizer on broccoli yield and nitrogen uptake.
  15. Hochmuth, G., Maynard, D., Vavrina, C., Hanlon, E., Simonne, E., 2012. Plant tissue analysis and interpretation for vegetable crops in Florida.
  16. Kage, H., Alt, C., Stuetzel, H., 2003. Aspects of nitrogen use efficiency of cauliflower II. Productivity and nitrogen partitioning as influenced by N supply. Journal of Agricultural Science 141, 17-29.

  17. TOP OF PAGE

  18. Koike, S.T., Cahn, M., Cantwell, M., Fennimore, S., Le Strange, M., Natwick, E., Smith, R.F., Takele, E., 2009. Cauliflower production in California. UC ANR Publication 7211.
  19. Pimpini, F., Venter, F., Wünsch, A. 1973. The influence of different nitrogen forms and increasing nitrogen doses on the content of total nitrogen and of nitrate in cauliflower plants. Acta Horticulturae 29, 307-318.
  20. Rather, K. Schenk, M.K., Everaarts, A.P., Vethman, S., 1999. Response of yield and quality of cauliflower varieties (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) to nitrogen supply. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 74, 658-664.
  21. Rather, K. Schenk, M.K., Everaarts, A.P., Vethman, S., 2000. Rooting pattern and nitrogen uptake of three cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) F1-hybrids. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 163, 467-474.
  22. Rincón Sánchez, L., Pellicer Botía, C., Sáez Sironi, J., Abadía Sánchez, A., Pérez Crespo, A., Marín Nartínez, C., 2001. Crecimiento vegetativo y absorción de nutrientes de la coliflor. Investigación Agraria: Producción y Protección Vegetales 16, 119-131.
  23. Sanchez, C.A., 1998. Diagnostic tools for efficient N management of vegetables produced in the low desert. FREP Final Report.
  24. Sanchez, C.A., Roth, R.L., Gardner, B.R., Ayer, H., 1996.Economic responses of broccoli and cauliflower to water and nitrogen in the desert. HortScience 31, 201–205.
  25. Smith, R., 2010. Fine tuning nitrogen management for vegetable production. UCCE Monterey County Crop Notes March/April 2010, 12-14.
  26. Smith, R., Cahn, M., Hartz, T.K., 2013. Survey of nitrogen uptake and applied irrigation water in broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage production in the Salinas Valley. Proceedings of the 21st Annual DCFA-FREP Conference.
  27. Thompson, T.L., Doerge, T.A., Godin, R.E., 2000. Nitrogen and water interactions in subsurface drip-irrigated cauliflower: I. Plant response. Soil Science Society of America Journal 64, 406-411.
  28. Thompson, T.L., Doerge, T.A., Godin, R.E., 2000. Nitrogen and water interactions in subsurface drip-irrigated cauliflower: I. Agronomic, economic, and environmental outcomes. Soil Science Society of America Journal 64, 412-418.
  29. UC IPM, 2012. UC IPM Online. Year-round IPM program for cole crops. UC ANR Publications.
  30. Van Den Boogaard, R., Thorup-Kristensen, K., 1997. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on growth and soil nitrogen depletion in cauliflower, Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B — Soil & Plant Science 47, 149-155.
  31. Wallace, T., 1943. The diagnosis of mineral deficiencies in plants by visual symptoms. His Majesty’s Stationery Office, London.
  32. Weir, R.G., Cresswell, G.C., 1993. Plant nutrient disorders 3. Vegetable crops. Inkata Press, Melbourne, Sidney.
  33. Welch, N.C., Tyler, K.B., Ririe, D., Broadbent, F.E., 1985. Nitrogen uptake by cauliflower. California Agriculture 39(5), 12-13.

TOP OF PAGE

Phosphorus

  1. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
  2. Cutcliffe, J.A., Munro, D.C., 1976. Effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on yield and maturity of cauliflower. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 56, 127-131.
  3. Hartz, T.K., 2006. Vegetable production best management practices to minimize nutrient loss. HortTechnology 16, 398-403.
  4. Hartz, T.K., 2007. Efficient nitrogen management for cool-season vegetables.
  5. Hemphill, D., 2010. Oregon vegetables – Cauliflower.
  6. Hochmuth, G., Maynard, D., Vavrina, C., Hanlon, E., Simonne, E., 2012. Plant tissue analysis and interpretation for vegetable crops in Florida.
  7. Koike, S.T., Cahn, M., Cantwell, M., Fennimore, S., Le Strange, M., Natwick, E., Smith, R.F., Takele, E., 2009. Cauliflower production in California. UC ANR Publication 7211.
  8. McPharlin, I.R., Robertson, W.J., Jeffrey, R.C., Weissberg, R., 1995. Response of cauliflower to phosphate fertilizer placement and soil test phosphorus calibration on a Karrakatta Sand. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 26, 607-620.
  9. Pettygrove, S., Hartz, T., Hanson, B., Jackson, L., Smith, R., Lockhart, T., Grattan, S., 2003. Nutrient management in cool-season vegetables. University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 8098.
  10. Rather, K. Schenk, M.K., Everaarts, A.P., Vethman, S., 2000. Rooting pattern and nitrogen uptake of three cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) F1-hybrids. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 163, 467-474.
  11. Rincón Sánchez, L., Pellicer Botía, C., Sáez Sironi, J., Abadía Sánchez, A., Pérez Crespo, A., Marín Nartínez, C., 2001. Crecimiento vegetativo y absorción de nutrientes de la coliflor. Investigación Agraria: Producción y Protección Vegetales 16, 119-131.
  12. Smith, R., Pettygrove, S., 2011. Potassium fertility of Salinas Valley soils. Salinas Valley Agriculture.
  13. Smith, R., Cahn, M., Hartz, T.K., 2013. Survey of nitrogen uptake and applied irrigation water in broccoli, cauliflower and cabbage production in the Salinas Valley. Proceedings of the 21st Annual DCFA-FREP Conference.
  14. Wallace, T., 1943. The diagnosis of mineral deficiencies in plants by visual symptoms. His Majesty’s Stationery Office, London.
  15. Weir, R.G., Cresswell, G.C., 1993. Plant nutrient disorders 3. Vegetable crops. Inkata Press, Melbourne, Sidney.

TOP OF PAGE

Potassium

  1. California Plant Health Association, 2002. Western Fertilizer Handbook 9th edition. Interstate Publishers, Inc.
  2. Cutcliffe, J.A., Munro, D.C., 1976. Effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on yield and maturity of cauliflower. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 56, 127-131.
  3. Hartz, T.K., 2006. Vegetable production best management practices to minimize nutrient loss. HortTechnology 16, 398-403.
  4. Hartz, T.K., 2007. Efficient nitrogen management for cool-season vegetables.
  5. Hemphill, D., 2010. Oregon vegetables – Cauliflower.
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